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282                 HISTORY OF PERSIA                 CHAP.
island emporium changed the whole situation. Two
years later the appearance of Sir Robert Sherley on his
second embassy, with a splendid retinue and in the
enjoyment of a large pension, made a great impression
in England. Although his exaggerated account of the
wealth of.Persia was discounted, a return mission was
decided upon, and Sir Dodmore Cotton was sent, accom-
panied by Sherley and the scholarly Herbert. The
mission landed at Gombroon, " whereupon the Cannons
from the Castle and Cittadel vomited out their choler, ten
times roaring out their wrathful clamours." The route
followed by practically all the English travellers at this
period lay through Lar and Shiraz, where the present
Bushire-Isfahan main route was struck. The monarch
was not at his capital, and the envoys travelled on north-
wards to Ashraff in the province of Mazanderan, where
they were received in audience.
After passing through various apartments in which
gold plate was lavishly exhibited, the ambassadors were
received by Shah Abbas. Sir Dodmore Cotton stated
that he had made a very great journey to congratulate
the monarch on his success against their common enemy
the Turks; also to promote trade and to make a per-
petual league of friendship between England and Persia,
and finally to see Sir Robert Sherley vindicate himself
from the imputations of Nakd Ali Beg. The Shah, like a
true son of Iran, replied that the Turks were a mean
people and of no consequence, as was proved, by his many
victories over them. Nevertheless, he wished for unity
among the Christian princes, as the Turkish conquests
were due to their discord. As for trade, he was ready to
deliver ten thousand bales every January at Gombroon,
and would accept English cloth of equal value in exchange,
so as to avoid being forced to export his silk through
Turkey. Towards Sir Robert Sherley he expressed most
friendly sentiments. Finally he drank the King of
England's health in a bowl of wine, and, noting that the
ambassador uncovered his head, he lifted up his turban.
This reception was most satisfactory; but owing to
intrigues against Sir Robert Sherley, with whose private